The Apocrypha: Judith

It’s been on my list for a while to read through the apocryphal books – writings in a sort of limbo, neither uniformly recognized or accepted by the Jewish people, and not uniformly recognized or accepted by Christians.  These books were written in the four centuries between the last of the Old Testament prophets, Malachi, and the time of Jesus and the Apostles.

I’m using this text –  The Apocrypha: The Lutheran Edition With Notes.  As noted in a recent exchange with Doug, a long-time reader, if this meant it was a translation of these books by exclusively Lutheran scholars, it would make me a tad nervous.  But the actual translation is the English Standard Version.  Rather than include these apocryphal books as part of the Lutheran Study Bible – also the ESV translation but with study notes from Lutheran scholars, theologians, and pastors – our publishing house (Concordia Publishing House) opted to publish them separately, in part because modern Lutherans are by and large unfamiliar with and skeptical of these books.

This particular edition includes those apocryphal writings included in the Latin Vulgate of the 4th century, plus three other books – 3 & 4 Maccabees and Psalm 151.  The Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament included  all of the books in this collection with the exception of 2 Esdras.  This collection of apocryphal writings also mirrors the books Luther included with his German translation of the Bible.  So, the apocryphal writings in this collection fall into some broad categories.

The CompositionsJudith, The Wisdom of Solomon, Tobit, Ecclesiasticus (Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach), Baruch, The Letter of Jeremiah

The Histories 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees

The AdditionsOld Greek Esther, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon

The Prayers and SongsThe Prayer of Azariah, The Song of the Three Holy Children, The Prayer of Manasseh

The Apocryphal Books in Other Christian Traditions1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, 3 Maccabees (Ptolemaika), 4 Maccabees, Psalm 151

This collection has some excellent preface sections which trace both the history of the apocryphal writings in relation to the Christian church, as well as the overall history of the Jewish people from the Persian period which started at the end of the 6th century BC and the Roman Empire which encompasses the New Testament period and beyond.  One thing I was surprised to learn was that the rejection of the apocrypha in Protestant circles is due in large part to the English translation societies of the 19th century.  Up until that point, it was not uncommon to have the apocryphal books published along with the Old and New Testaments.

Prior to this, the Church as a whole seemed to have difficulty deciding if these were inspired sacred texts or not.  The Jews translated them and included them with their Greek version of the Old Testament (the Septuagint) but did not count them as canonical – on equal footing with the other 39 books of the Old Testament as Christians know it.

But the apocryphal writings were widely known and even quoted and used by the early Church.  This was likely because the early Church – predominantly Jewish – used the Septuagint, which included the Apocrypha.  As such there are quotations from or allusions to apocryphal writings by many of the Early Church Fathers.  The Apocrypha is considered canonical by both the Eastern Orthodox Communion as well as the Roman Catholic church.  When Luther translated the Bible into German, he collected the Apocrypha into a single section between the Old and New Testaments, as did the King James Translation in 1611.

Confusion is just that, and so I’m skeptical as I begin reading these.  It’s very possible for a writing to be orthodox and helpful but still not the same thing as the inspired Word of God, something the Church has acknowledged since earliest times, but hasn’t always agreed on in application.

Judith is the first book in the collection.  It purports to be a historical account of the deliverance of the people of Judea thanks to the bravery of the woman Judith.  The problem is that it’s obvious from language and other issues that the work was composed (orally or otherwise) far later than this – after the conquests of Alexander the Great and the process of Hellenization which overtook much of the Middle East.  There are also challenges in the historical and other inaccuracies throughout the book (claiming Nebuchadnezzar was the king of Assyria rather than Babylon, claiming an army could travel over 300 miles in three days, etc.).  Also, it has the challenge of glorifying sexual seduction to accomplish the will of God.  Granted, the seduction is never consummated, but it is certainly aimed at as part of an overall deception.

I have a hard time accepting this as a divinely inspired work with these and other issues.  It seems more likely to be a well-intentioned fable, a morality play of sorts exhorting hearers/readers to trust in God rather than man.  As such, the moral of the story is good but don’t see how it is necessary.  It doesn’t add anything to Scripture, either the Old or New Testament.  The theme runs throughout many books in the Bible that are far more reliable in the details they provide. I don’t even find the style to be particularly impressive, and it borrows heavily on styles and motifs found elsewhere in Scripture.  Overall it strikes me as highly derivative.

I’ll review each of the included apocryphal works separately as I finish them.  While I don’t pretend my opinion is in any useful sense authoritative, I’m also not the first person to weigh in with my opinion and so I feel it’s fair game to do so without impugning the canonical books of the Bible, which I do wholeheartedly acknowledge as divinely inspired.

 

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